The branch of chemistry deals with studying the production of electricity from the energy released during spontaneous chemical reactions, and the use of electrical power to bring about non-spontaneous chemical transformations is known to be electrochemistry. This field is essential in producing metals like sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and calcium, electroplating, purification of metals, etc. Chemical kinetics is the study of chemical reactions concerning reaction rates, the effect of various variables, rearrangement of atoms, and formation of intermediates.
The solutions provided for NCERT solutions are very understandable and written in a simple language to learn quickly without finding any difficulties. The class 12 electrochemistry chapter comprises many concepts. First, these topics have to be covered, then practice the solutions given so that students can understand the concepts and assess themselves in which subject they have the slightest knowledge.
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What is the importance and scope of electrochemistry in our daily life?
Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the interrelation of electrical and chemical changes caused by the passage of current. The branch of physical chemistry studies the relationship between electricity, as calibration and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice-versa.
Electrochemistry has an ever-increasing impact on everybody’s daily life. In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. There are many uses of batteries.
Fuel cell in Chemical
A fuel cell converts the chemical potential energy produced by the oxidation of fuels.
- electrical appliances such as cellphones (long-life alkaline batteries)
- digital cameras (lithium batteries)
- Hearing aids (silver-oxide batteries)
- digital watches (mercury/silver-oxide batteries)
The process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal using an electrical current. It is one of the most common applications of chemical effects of electric current.
Uses of Electroplating:
Electroplating is widely used in industry for coating metal objects with a thin layer of a deferent metal. This may be done to
- To make objects appear shiny,
- For preventing corrosion,
- To make things resistant to scratches.
- Coat less reactive metal on more reactive metals to protect from getting spoilt,
Electrochemical cell – Daniel cell
An electrochemical cell of zinc and copper metals is known as the Daniell cell. In the Daniell cell, a piece of zinc metal is placed in a solution of zinc sulfate in one container, and a bit of copper metal is set in a solution of copper(II) sulfate in another container. These strips of metal are called the cell’s electrodes. The salt bridge, usually a U-shaped hollow tube filled with a concentrated salt solution, provides a way for ions to move from one container to the other to keep the solutions electrically neutral. With the salt bridge in place, electrons can start to flow. Zinc is being oxidised, releasing electrons that flow through the wire to the copper electrode.
The salt bridge’s cations migrate to the container containing the copper electrode to replace the copper ions being consumed. The salt bridge’s anions migrate toward the zinc side, keeping the solution containing the newly formed zinc ions.
Ion Zn/ZnSO4 half cell, an oxidation reaction occurs.
Zn → Zn2+ + 2e–
Ion Cu/CuSO4 half cell, a reduction reaction occurs.
Cu2+ + 2e– → Cu
Chemical kinetics give the idea of the speed at which chemical species transform into new substances by breaking and reforming their molecular bonds. Chemical kinetics is the study of the rates of chemical reactions, the factors that affect these rates, and the reaction mechanisms by which reactions occur. Chemical kinetics is the study of chemical reactions concerning reaction rates, the effect of various variables, rearrangement of atoms and formation of intermediates. The reaction rate is concerned with a decrease in the concentration of reactants or an increase in the concentration of products per unit of time.
- The rate constant is the proportionality factor in the rate law. The rate constant and order of a reaction can be determined from rate law or its integrated rate equation.
- The rate of a chemical reaction at a given temperature may depend on the concentration of one or more reactants and products. The representation of the rate of reaction in terms of concentration of the reactants is known as rate law.
Advantages of NCERT Solutions for Chemical Students
- Students can improve their concept of understanding
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- Improves speed and accuracy